316L Austenitic Stainless Steel Bar
|316L is a low carbon-chromium-nickel-molybdenum austenitic stainless steel with good strength and excellent corrosion resistance, as supplied in the annealed condition with a typical brinell hardness of 175.Characterised by high corrosion resistance in marine and industrial atmospheres, it exhibits excellent resistance to chloride attack and against complex suphur compounds employed in the pulp and paper processing industries. The addition of 2% to 3% of molybdenum increases its resistance to pitting corrosion and improves its creep resistance at elevated temperatures. The low carbon content reduces the risk of intergranural corrosion (Due to carbide precipitation) during welding, reducing the need for post weld annealing. Finally it displays good oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures.
316L cannot be hardened by thermal treatment, but strength and hardness can be increased substantially by cold working, with susequent reduction in ductility.
It is now available with improved machinability (by calcium injection treatment), which has little effect on corrosion resistance and weldability while greatly increasing feeds and/or speeds, plus extending tool life.
It is used extensively by the Marine, Chemical, Pulp and Paper, Textile, Transport, Manufacturing and allied industries.
Typical uses are:
Architectural Components, Textile Equipment, Pulp and Paper Processing Equipment, Marine Equipment and Fittings, Photographic Equipment and X-Ray Equipment etc..
Material non magnetic in the annealed condition, but can become mildly magnetic following heavy cold working. Annealing is required to rectify if necessary.
N.B. Optimum corrosion resistance is achieved in the annealed condition.
|Colour Code||Stocked Sizes|
|Red (Bar end)
With Orange Band
|Rounds||3.18 mm to 325 mm diameter.|
|Hexagons||7.94 mm to 63.5 mm A/F|
|Squares||6.35 mm to 50 mm A/F|
|Hollow Bar||32 mm - 250 mm OD|
|Peeled, Cold Drawn
Turned and Polished, and
|Germany||W.Nr 1.4404 X2CrNiMo17 13 2
W.Nr 1.4435 X2CrNiMo 18 14 3
|Great Britain||Bs970 Part 3 1991 316S11/316S13|
|Japan||JIS G4303 SuS 316L|
|USA||ASTM A276-98b 316L
SAE 30316L AISI 316L
|Min. %||Max %|
|Mechanical Property Requirements - Annealed to ASTM A276-98b 316L|
|Finish||Hot Finish||Cold Finish|
|Dia or Thickness mm||All||Up to 12.7||Over 12.7|
|Temsile Strength Mpa Min.||485||620||485|
|Yield Strength Mpa Min.||170||310||170|
|Elongation in 50mm % Min.||40||30||30|
|Typical Mechanical Properties At Room Temperature - Annealed|
|Tensile Strength Mpa||680||590|
|Yield Strength Mpa||500||280|
|Elongation in 50mm %||42||55|
|Impact Charpy V J||190||180|
|Elevated Temperature Properties|
|316L displays good oxidation resistance in continuous service up to 930 oC, and in intermittent service up to 870 oC. Due to its low carbon content it is also less susceptable to carbide precipitation resulting in intergranular corrosion when heated or slow cooled through the temperature range 430 oC - 870 oC either in service or during welding.
There is however a reduction in mechanical properties as temperature increases.
|Typical 0.2% Yield Strength at Elevated Temperatures|
|0.2% Yield Strength||182||166||152||137||127||118||108||103||100||98|
|Low Temperature Properties|
|316L as with all of the 300 series austenitic stainless steels has excellent low temperature properties, with increased tensile and yield strength without loss of toughness in the annealed condition.|
|Typical Mechanical Properties - Annealed at Zero and Sub-Zero Temperatures|
|Tensile Strengt Mpa||670||715||800||1250||1430|
|Yield Strength Mpa||310||280||300||510||560|
|Elongation in 50mm %||67||60||59||61||55|
|Impact Izod J||150||150||150|
|The combination of high strength and toughness at low temperatures allows this grade to be used in extremely cold climates or high altitudes, also for storage of liquified gasses etc. at very low temperatures.
N.B. 316L even when cold worked will still have good high strength and ductility at sub-zero temperature.
|Cold bending can be carried out without too much difficulty, however due to the high work hardening ability of this grade any cold working causing more than 15% deformation should be followed by annealing.|
|Hot bending should be performed at 900 oC - 1100 oC, followed by annealing to restore optimum corrosion resistance.|
|316L has better resistance to general corrosion in most media than 310, 304, 321, 302 and 303 grades.|
|Stress Corrosion Cracking|
|316L has a better resistance to stress corrosion cracking in chloride solutions than 302 or 304 grades, however it can also fail if subjected to high stresses in an environment conducive to stress corrosion.|
|316L has higher resistance to pitting corrosion than the non molybdenum bearing grades such as 304, 321, 310 and 303 etc..|
|316L due to its low carbon contenet has greater resistance to intergranular corosion than all the austenitic stainless steel grades except 304L grade and 321 titanium|
For optimum corrosive resistance, surfaces must be free of scale and foreign particles.
Finished parts should be passivated.
Finished forgings should be air cooled.
Finally forgings will require to be annealed in order to obtain optimum corrosion resistance.
Please consult your heat treater for best results.
All machining should be carried out as per machine maunfacturers recommendations for suitable tool type, feeds and speeds.
The low carbon content in 316L allows it to be welded without loss of corrosion resistance due to intergranular carbide precipitation, and post weld annealing is not generally required, except for service in the more extreme conditions.
*Please consult your welding consumables supplier.