316 Austenitic Stainless Steel Bar

316 is a chromium-nickel-molybdenum austenitic stainless steel with good strength and excellent corrosion resistance, as supplied in the annealed condition with a typical brinell hardness of 175.Characterised by high corrosion resistance in marine and industrial atmospheres, it exhibits excellent resistance to chloride attack and against complex suphur compounds employed in the pulp and paper processing industries. The addition of 2% to 3% of molybdenum increases its resistance to pitting corrosion and improves its creep resistance at elevated temperatures. Also it displays good oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures and has excellent weldability.

316 cannot be hardened by thermal treatment, but strength and hardness can be increased substantially by cold working, with susequent reduction in ductility.
It is now available with improved machinability (by calcium injection treatment), which has little effect on corrosion resistance and weldability while greatly increasing feeds and/or speeds, plus extending tool life.
It is used extensively by the Marine, Chemical, Petrochemical, Pulp and Paper, Textile, Transport, Manufacturing and allied industries.
Typical uses are:
Architectural Components, Textile Equipment, Pulp and Paper Processing Equipment, Marine Equipment and Fittings, Photographic Equipment and X-Ray Equipment etc..
Material non magnetic in the annealed condition, but can become mildly magnetic following heavy cold working. Annealing is required to rectify if necessary.
N.B. Optimum corrosion resistance is achieved in the annealed condition.
Colour Code Stocked Sizes
(Bar end)
Rounds 3.18 mm to 325 mm diameter.
Hexagons 7.94 mm to 63.5 mm A/F
Squares 6.35 mm to 50 mm A/F
Hollow Bar
32 mm - 250 mm OD
Bar Finish
Peeled, Cold Drawn
Turned and Polished, and
Centreless Ground.
Related Specifications
Australia AS 2837-1986-316
Germany W.Nr 1.4401 X5CrNiMo17 12 2
W.Nr 1.4436 X5CrNiMo 17 13 3
Great Britain Bs970 Part 3 1991 316S31/316S33
Bs970 1955 EN58J
Japan JIS G4303 SuS 316
USA ASTM A276-98b 316
SAE 30316 AISI 316
UNS S31600
Chemical Composition
Min. % Max %
Carbon 0 0.08
Silicon 0 1.00
Manganese 0 2.00
Nickel 10.00 14.00
Chromium 16.00 18.00
Molybdenum 2.00 3.00
Nitrogen 0 0.10
Phosphorous 0 0.045
Sulphur 0 0.03
Mechanical Property Requirements - Annealed to ASTM A276-98b 316
Finish Hot Finish Cold Finish
Dia or Thickness mm All Up to 12.7 Over 12.7
Temsile Strength Mpa Min. 515 620 515
Yield Strength Mpa Min. 205 310 205
Elongation in 50mm % Min. 40 30 30
Typical Mechanical Properties At Room Temperature - Annealed
Finish Cold Drawn Other
Tensile Strength Mpa 680 590
Yield Strength Mpa 500 280
Elongation in 50mm % 42 55
Impact Charpy V J 190 180
Hardness HB 195 155
Rc 13
Elevated Temperature Properties
316 displays good oxidation resistance in continuous service up to 930 oC, and in intermittent service up to 870 oC.NB. Continuous service however between 430 oC and 870 oC is not recommended, nor is slow cooling through this range due to the problem of intergranular corrosion. 316L (low carbon type) can be employed to overcome this problem.

Mechanical properties are reduced as temperature increases.
Typical Mechanical Properties - Annealed at Elevated Temperatures
Temperature oC 20 550 600 650 700 750 850
Short - Time Tensile Tests
Tensile Strength Mpa
590 500 480 460 450 355 260
Creep Tests Stress for 1% Creep
in 10,000 hours Mpa
170 120 90 55 35 20
Low Temperature Properties
316 has excellent low temperature properties, with increased tensile and yield strength without loss of toughness in the annealed condition.
Typical Mechanical Properties - Annealed at Zero and Sub-Zero Temperatures
Temperature oC 0 -70 -130 -180 -240
Tensile Strengt Mpa 650 750 990 1200 1450
Yield Strength Mpa 310 350 470 530 600
Elongation in 50mm % 67 65 62 60 56
Impact Charpy V J 190 190 183 183 183
The combination of high strength and toughness at low temperatures allows this grade to be used in extremely cold climates or high altitudes, also for storage of liquified gasses etc. at very low temperatures.N.B. 316 even when cold worked will still have good high strength and ductility at sub-zero temperatures.
Cold Bending
316 has good cold bending properties and cold bending can generally be carried out without too much difficulty, after cold working it may be mildly magnetic. Annealing is recommended following cold working, causing more than 15% deformation.
Hot Bending
Hot bending should be performed at 950 oC - 1100 oC, followed by annealing to restore optimum corrosion resistance.
Corrosion Resistance
General Corrosion
316 has better resistance to general corrosion in most media than 310, 304, 321, 302 and 303 grades.
Stress Corrosion Cracking
316 has a better resistance to stress corrosion cracking in chloride solutions than 302 or 304 grades, however it can also fail if subjected to high stresses in an environment conducive to stress corrosion.
Pitting Corrosion / Crevice Corrosion
316 has higher resistance to both pitting and crevice corrosion than the non molybdenum bearing grades such as 304, 321, 310 and 303 etc..
Intergranular Corrosion
316 has better resistance to intergranular corrosion than the higher carbon grades 303, 310 or 302 but not as good as the low carbon grades 316L and 304L, or the titanium stabilised grade 321.N.B. It is most important that oxygen is always allowed to circulate freely on all stainless steel surfaces to ensure that a chrome oxide film is always present to protect it. If this is not the case, rusting will occur as with other types of non stainless steel.

For optimum corrosive resistance surfaces must be free of scale and foreign particles.
Finished parts should be passivated.
Heat uniformly to 1150 oC - 1200 oC, hold until temperature is uniform throughout the section.Do not forge below 900 oC

Finished forgings should be air cooled.
Finally forgings will require to be annealed in order to obtain optimum corrosion resistance.
Heat Treatment
Heat to 1020 oC - 1100 oC, hold until temperature is uniform throughout the section. *Soak as required. Quench in water to obtain optimum corrosion resistance.*Actual soaking time should be long enough to ensure that the part is heated thoroughly throughout its section to the required temperature, 30 minutes per 25 mm of section may be used as a guide.

Please consult your heat treater for best results.
316 improved machinability is slightly more difficult to machine than improved machinability 304 grade. More difficult to machine than 303 free machining grade and most of the 400 series stainless steels. It has a typical machinability rating around 50% - 55% of free machining (S1214) mild steel.Due to the high work hardening rate of this grade, cutting or drilling tools etc. must be kept sharp at all times and not cause unnecessary work hardening of the surface etc..

All machining should be carried out as per machine maunfacturers recommendations for suitable tool type, feeds and speeds.
316 is readily weldable by shielded fusion and resistance welding processes, followed by air cooling giving good toughness.Oxcyacetylene welding is not recommended due to possible carbon pick up in the weld area.

Small sections may be welded without loss of corrosion resistance due to intergranular carbide precipitation, but larger sections, or for service in the more extreme conditions post weld annealing is recommended.
Welding Procedure
Welding should be carried out using 316, 316L or *similar electrodes or rods (depending upon application). No pre heat or post heat is generally required.*Please consult your welding consumables supplier.
Interlloy believes the information provided is accurate and reliable. However no warranty of accuracy, completeness or reliability is given, nor will any responsibility be taken for errors or omissions.